Structural Fire Protection
It is important in fire safety considerations regarding the building structure to minimize the likelihood of collapse of the structural frame during a fire and to ensure that fire barriers remain intact to prevent ignition and fire spread to adjoining spaces.
In general, we provide the following approaches to structural frame and barrier design for fire resistance:
· Analysis of Fire Endurance Requirements for Construction Assemblies
· Evaluating Fire Resistance of Structural Elements
· Predicting response of structural components to fire exposures
· Applying related building code requirements for fire resistance
· Protection of Openings
Fire Protection and Fire Suppression Systems Design
Fire Protection and Suppression systems are designed to confine and prevent the spread of fire and eventually extinguish the fire.
In general we provide the following systems design:
· Water-Based Fire Protection Systems Design
Ø Wet, dry, pre-action, deluge and water-mist sprinkler systems design
Ø Hydraulic Calculation for water-based fire protection systems
· Foam, Halon and Clean Agent, Carbon Dioxide Systems Design
Smoke management throughout a building is provided by means of active and passive smoke control. Active smoke management generally involves use of ventilation systems to control the spread of smoke. Passive smoke management generally involves the use of smoke barriers to provide compartmentation to minimize spread of smoke.
In general we provide the following design and analysis concepts for smoke management:
· Air and smoke movement analysis
· Compartmentation, exhaust, pressurization design & analysis.
· Performance characteristics of alerting devices and smoke exhaust systems
· Smoke management in large spaces (mechanical & natural venting)
Life & Fire Safety Analysis and Design
Life safety analysis is performed to ensure that the construction, protection, and occupancy features are provided to minimize the danger to life from the effects of fire.
It is important to assess the risks and potential exposures to an emergency event, fire, or hazardous material incident that could put people and property at risk.
We generally provide the following approaches to determine the necessary precautions are in place:
· Prescriptive & Performance-Based Design and Analysis
· ASET / RSET Analysis
· Evacuation modeling considering
Ø Human behavior in case of fire
Ø People movement and wayfinding
Ø Toxicity and tenability analysis
Fire Modeling & Fire Dynamics
Applying fire dynamics to simulate the behavior of fire is important especially for atrium spaces, hazardous locations, and places where occupant density is high.
The innovative approach of Performance-Based Design is important where prescriptive design methods are either inapplicable or difficult to satisfy. Based on reliable assumptions which are defined in the related standards, using engineering analysis to simulate fire models gives flexilility and reliability in the application of fire protection measures.
We provide the following analyses and approaches for fire dynamics and fire modeling:
· Design fire concept to analyze
Ø Fire growth; formation of smoke layer and transition to flashover
Ø Vent flows and smoke transport in building
Ø Convective and radiation heat transfer analysis in enclosures
Ø Burning rate
Ø Internal & external flame spread
Smoke Detection & Fire Alarm Systems
Fire alarm system is designed to automatically detect when smoke, fire, carbon monoxide, or other emergencies are present and to warn people as soon as possible.
For fire alarm purposes, we generally provide the following approaches:
· Airflow analysis in buildings
· Assessment of hazard posed by smoke
· Fire detection and alarm system evaluation
· Performance characteristics of heat, smoke and flame detection
· Stairwell pressurization systems and zoned smoke control systems design
Computational Methods for Fire Protection
CFD models solve the fundamental equations describing the fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena associated with fires. Using CFD models, we predict smoke and heat movement in buildings of any design.
With the advent of performance-based codes, cfd models are increasingly used in fire safety engineering.
We use CFD modeling for especially the following:
· Zone modeling using CFAST
· CFD modeling using FDS, Pyrosim
· Simulation of:
Ø Smoke transport
Ø Internal & external fire spread
Ø Flashover and under-ventilated fires
Ø Thermal radiation transport
Ø Fire detection
Ø Sprinkler activation
· Human egress analyses using Pathfinder, Massmotion
Fire Risk Evaluation & Assessment
We carry out fire risk assessment including measures to reduce or eliminate the risk of fire, and identify persons and premises at risk.
· Preparation of fire risk assessment